Question 4.1        

          Power and identity can be understood based on notion of space. Space indicates power as evidenced mainly by territorial conflicts between cultural space and nation space. For example, identity and power are being perceived through symbolic position of the capital cities. Mobility is influenced by culture such as the mobile homes common with the nomadic culture. People tend to have a different vision of territory that is strictly delimited purely for sedentary populations. The sacred places are considered to be landmarks but not places owned with the aim of excluding others. The various visions concerning territory usually translate to benefits related to the lived spaces in a manner that accommodates cultural perceptions of territory (Hao, and Fleer, 2017). For example, the territory is considered as the moving space that is formed through the summation of journeys and places common to an individual or a group. As a result, territories are important spaces of familiarity and recognition connected to the daily life of people, social behavior, and status. This felt, lived, and practiced space has been considered unique for an islander and the nomads of Sahel. The nomadic populations experience striking duality especially between the attachment to symbolic, funerary, and religious places and the detachments from territories that have sizes that vary with important boundaries for islanders.

           The issue of power and identity has led to the distinction of mobility’s central place in conceptions of individual space. The ways of life of Gypsies and Tuareg have become less nomadic and more sedentary due to external pressures. For example, the representation changes in mobility started as it was considered less beneficial despite the need to preserve their identity. As a result, the nomads changed their representations especially of the space in the process of handling territories and space (Ghibusi, 2018). A sedentary life cannot be considered the prerogative especially of the West from transhumance habits of Canadian spring-summer to the American practices involving mobil-homes based on the workplace evolutions. However, the mobility concept across the Atlantic Ocean is more serene than it is in France as changing workplace obligations because of reclassification or relocation is considered as the drama. For example, lived spaces can vary depending on cultures associated with lesser or greater mobility. The lived space perceptions vary based on mental maps, income, and education levels. As a result, the issue of identity and power is being affected by the gradual narrowing of territories to villages and neighborhoods.        

Question 4.2

          The ways used by men in arranging the space around them usually helps in revealing their relations to culture and identity. The power the identity of men can be traced to the political organization and the social systems. The space organization is determined by the systems in place due to the modern societies that have been spreading. For example, radio concentric systems observed in Spain or France and chessboard systems that originated from Asia. The identity and power can be linked to the differences associated with the decentralized organizations and radio concentric political organizations (Hao, and Fleer, 2017). For example, Chinese Feng Shui is among the pseudoscientific traditional practices that originated from ancient China. Chinese Feng Shui involves the investigation of geographical features that are utilized in selecting appropriate site for constructions and in constructing tombs, cities and dwellings (Han, 2001). This is aimed at achieving harmonious coexistence especially between nature and human beings. The spatial planning policies were mainly based on the power centralized conceptions that were strong. The cross-linked spaces and network companies are distinguished from anglo-saxon chessboard systems and the concentric visions of spaces. For example, Vanuatu islands involved spaces succeeding spaces on roads that are based on equality. As a result, the moment breaks of chain links occur or some places die hence the roads can easily break apart. 

            Moreover, Melanesian roads are said to converge at the intersections that tie up and go back to the founding places where they started. For example, the founding places are necessary for pushing forces flowing into the roads. The founding spaces’ benefits and cross-linked spaces are reminiscent of the way Japanese cities are organized. The intersections and crossroads are named but streets do not have names leading to confusion especially for the visitors and taxi drivers. The ways houses are numbered communicate power and identity as they embrace seniority and the construction dates. Organizing territories based on the center series and partial questioning of peripheries in societies. For example, the moment the countryside of African nations are organized based on villages and functions representing decision-making places, the power, and identity of people can be communicated (Ghibusi, 2018). Some African regions like Ethiopia are usually characterized by the absence of villages in habitats that are widely dispersed making it possible to interpret feudal systems heritage primarily based on serfdom. Therefore, the spatial organization is usually related to culture and history necessary for pronouncing the identity and power of the people. 





Ghibusi, R. O. X. A. N. A. (2018). Human Interpretations of Space.  

Han, K. T. (2001). Traditional Chinese site selection-Feng Shui: An evolutionary/ecological perspective. Journal of Cultural Geography19(1), 75-96.  

Hao, Y., & Fleer, M. (2017). Collective interpretations of early science learning about Earth and Space: a cultural-historical study of family settings for scientific imagination. Pedagogies: An International Journal12(4), 354-373.



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