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100 word response to the folowing:

Must use Chicago style citing and the textbook:  Jandt, Fred E. (editor) Intercultural Communication: A Global Reader. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 2004.  Part I Cultural Values


Culture has many different meanings anywhere from historical perspectives to behavioral perspectives to different traditions that have been passed down from generations to generations.

Levi Strauss was interested in structuralism which he defined as “the search for unusual harmonies” (pg 1 Jandt). “There are many more human cultures than human races”, human cultures are counted by the thousands and human races are divided up by units.

The collaboration between cultures is trying to compare the old world with the new world. “No society is intrinsically cumulative. Cumulative history is the way of life of cultures and how they get a long together. All cultural contributions are divided into two groups; isolated acquisitions or features, the features are important but at the same time they are limited. The second group is systemized contributions which is how each society has chosen to express human aspirations. According to Strauss the true contribution of a culture is its difference from others.

Geert Hostede looks at business cultures and states that culture may be divided into four categories symbols, heroes, rituals and values. “Understanding people means understanding their background from which their present and future behavior can be predicted”. There are also four national cultural differences: 1.power distance-the population from equal to extremely unequal 2. Individualism -people have learned to act as individuals rather than in a group 3.masculinity- assertiveness or masculine values prevail over the feminine ones 4.uncertainty avoidance- people in a country prefer structured over unstructured situations.


Jandt, E. Fred. Intercultural Communications. Thousand Oaks; Sage Publications. 2004. Print.


100 word response to the folowing:

Must use Chicago style citing and the textbook:  Jandt, Fred E. (editor) Intercultural Communication: A Global Reader. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 2004 Part I Cultural Values

Our culture is something that has been ingrained in us from an early age, and is largely unconscious. Levi-Strauss says that while certain biological traits were selected for us in the beginning of evolution, as soon as culture came into being, those biological traits were influenced by the dynamics of culture (Jandt, p. 6). Essentially, we are not able to separate ourselves from culture, and to do so would be to ruin what is wonderful and unique about each culture. According to Hofstede, all cultures have their processes, and their values. While things like symbols and rituals in a culture vary greatly, he says; “Values represent the deepest level of culture. (Jandt, p. 9)”

Because culture is deeply ingrained in us, all of the variants that Levi-Strauss and Hofstede discussed must be taken in account when dealing with another culture. Levi-Strauss warns that cultural differences are strong, and should remain strong, but that too close of an interaction between cultures will cause a clash (Jandt, p. 7). When dealing with someone from another culture we need to be respectful of where they are coming from, rather than trying to force them or ourselves to conform to alien social values. Being aware of the five dimensions that Hofstede uses to classify broad cultural differences can help us to understand where our differences lie so that we don’t become frustrated in communication. Understanding that the values that are being expressed in communications from another culture are not contrary, but rather ingrained, can help us to understand and work with someone much better. Conversely, if we are mindful of the cultural values that are guiding someone from another culture, we can better understand responses that might at first seem unreasonable to us. By communicating our needs and values to someone from another culture in a way that they can find relevant, we are better able to make our point clearly and effectively.

Jandt, F. E. (2003). Intercultural communication: A global reader. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.


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