SCH4U INDEPENDENT STUDY ~ PROBLEM SET Submit complete solutions, including your reasoning where applicable, to the following questions. While no assistance from the teacher will be given in solving these problems, they are representative of the key expectations for each unit so you should be able to complete them using the information provided in class and some supplemental research. Please see the for rubrics and evaluation criteria for each section of work. Please adhere to the due dates provided in class for each section of work so that they can be evaluated and returned in a timely manner. Although work will be accepted until 16 January 2013, no section of work will be returned until all students in the course this semester have submitted their responses for evaluation. Organic Chemistry 1. Draw the structural formula and provide the proper IUPAC name for at least ten possible isomers of an organic molecule that must contain six carbon atoms, one oxygen or nitrogen atom and a minimum of nine hydrogen atoms. 2. Propose a synthesis pathway that can be used to manufacture N-ethylpent-4-enoate from a supply of ethane and pentane. You may add in any small molecules, but no other organic materials. Provide the structural formula and proper IUPAC name for all materials used. 3. In June 2012, the council for the City of Toronto surprised its constituents when a debate over whether to scrap the 10 ¢ fee retailers must charge for single use plastic bags turned into a vote to completely ban them. Although Toronto is not the first municipality to ban retailers from providing single use plastic bags, it was a sudden and unexpected move. Many other municipalities are considering similar bans and there is considerable debate as to the environmental and economic impact such a ban will have. Prepare a Iproposal, in the form of a letter that could be presented to the Town of Oakville that outlines whether or not the city should follow Toronto and completely ban single use plastic bags. You may argue for or against such a ban but your letter must cite at least three fully explained and supported reasons for your opinion. Structure & Properties of Matter 4. For a molecule of your choosing that contains either a double or triple bond complete the following: Draw the Lewis structure and name the three dimensional shape. Draw the orbital diagram and representation to illustrate the hybridization of the atoms involved. Indicate what type of solid crystal your molecule would be expected to form. Outline its physical properties and provide a theoretical explanation for the observed properties. 5. Looking at the development of quantum mechanics and quantum chemistry from a historical perspective, many people would find it difficult to name a female scientist who played a key role in furthering our understanding or opening up new avenues of study. Yet there have been a number of women who have made key contributions to the advancement of science in this area. Select one of the following female scientists and prepare a IIfact sheet outlining their achievements and include information about the challenges these scientists faced as women working in their fields. Inga Fischer-Hjalmars (1919-2008) Maria Goeppert-Mayer (1906-1972) Lise Meitner (1878 – 1968) Sigrid Peyerimhoff (1937 – ##) Alberte Pullman (1920 – 2011) Hertha Sponer (1895 – 1968) Energy Changes & Rates of Reaction 6. Hydrogen gas is considered a very environmentally friendly fuel source but one factor that is important in determining whether it is used as a fuel source is the cost of production. Use the information provided to determine which of the two common processes for producing hydrogen requires more energy. Electrolysis of Water: 49.1% efficient ( ) → ( ) ( ) ⁄ Displacement of Methane: 80.5 % efficient ( ) ( ) → ( ) ( ) ⁄ 7. Efficiency of chemical reactions can be improved by applying optimal conditions. Yet reactions that must be carried out at high temperatures or at high pressures can be costly for industry. If these are carried out close to standard conditions, the reaction becomes much more cost efficient. This can often be achieved through the use of a catalyst. Construct a IIfact sheet that includes a concept map to display the information that answers the following points: How does a catalyst change the overall rate and the rates of the forward and reverse reactions? Why is only a small amount of catalyst necessary? Will any material act as a catalyst for a reaction? What kind or type of catalysts are the most effective or most useful for industry? Give two industrial examples that rely on a catalyst to increase the efficiency of the reaction. SCH4U INDEPENDENT STUDY ~ PROBLEM SET Chemical Systems & Equilibrium 8. Both the Arrhenius and Brønsted-Lowry definitions of acids & bases are not extensive enough to cover all known materials that have this chemical character. Many biologically important processes rely on equilibrium systems that create acid-base solutions due to the hydrolysis of water and an attempt to explain these systems is made using Lewis Theory. Create a IIIshort lesson to explain to the class the concept of Lewis theory (as it applies to acid-base equilibrium systems) that includes the use of iron(III) chloride and sodium phosphate as examples of a Lewis acid and a Lewis base. 9. One of the steps in the Ostwald process for the manufacture of nitric acid involves the oxidation of ammonia: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) where ΔHRxn = – 905 kJ/mol. State the reaction conditions that favour the production of nitrogen(II) oxide and provide an explanation for your answer. Explain what effect the rhodium/platinum alloy used as a catalyst has on the position of the equilibrium. Electrochemistry 10. When there is sufficient ethanol in a person’s breath it can be detected using a simple redox reaction. This reaction is contained in a breathalyzer unit and can instantly give an indication whether a person has consumed a moderate to substantial amount of alcohol. Provide a fully labelled diagram that explains how a common type of breathalyzer functions. Provide the balanced redox reaction used in the device. Due to the increased amount of binge drinking among youths and the problems this creates, several high schools in Ontario have instituted mandatory breathalyzer tests for all school sponsored events, (like a dance or prom). Write a Iproposal, in the form of a letter to the principal either in support of or opposed to OT bringing in a breathalyzer test for this years prom. You may choose either opinion but it must be supported by at least three separate points of evidence. 11. Many different redox reactions are used in industry to manufacture materials and purify metal ores. One such process is the chlor-alkali process for the production of chlorine gas. Draw a fully labelled diagram of the cell involved in this process. Provided the balanced redox reaction for this process. Calculate the mass of water that must react to produce 1000 L of chlorine gas at SATP. How many hours would you have to run this cell to produce the chlorine using a 100 A current? I All Proposals must conform to the following composition guidelines: Maximum of one letter sized page, double sided. Constructed as a formal letter (you may use an existing template). Has no spelling or grammatical errors. Lists at least three points of evidence. Each point of evidence must be fully explained & supported by evidence and/or examples. Written at a 12U level. May be submitted electronically in PDF format. II All Fact Sheets must conform to the following composition guidelines: Maximum of one letter sized page, double sided. Uses a tri-fold, bi-fold or leaflet style. Has a prominent title to identify the contents. Pleasing use of colour & design elements. May be submitted electronically in PDF format. III Any Short Lesson must conform to the following composition guidelines: Results in a maximum of one letter sized page of typed student notes, single sided. May use electronic presentation format or hard copy. Provides links to questions or readings in the current course text book. Written at a 12U level. May be submitted electronically in PDF format. Electronic Submission: Students are encouraged to submit work electronically to reduce printing waste and allow for more creativity in student work. All submissions must be emailed to [email protected] attached in PDF format (to retain formatting and allow for cross platform viewing), or provide the complete URL for websites or uploaded video content. If you are uploading work to the internet, be careful in the permissions you use. If you do not restrict who can access the URL to view your work, the whole world will be able to see it, forever. Please be sure to identify yourself and what work is being submitted in your email and include your name as a part of all file names.